Bolts are a mechanical fastener that feature an external male thread, capable of mating with a matching preformed internal thread to secure and assemble two or more parts together. As one of the most common fasteners used for assemblies ranging from DIY home projects to advanced aircraft construction, there are many types available that one may procure for their given requirements. The carriage bolt and lag bolt are two common types, each of which present their own unique characteristics and advantages. To help you best understand the difference between carriage bolts and lag bolts, we will provide a brief overview of each in regard to how they are designed, how they serve assemblies, and more.


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For an aircraft to achieve and maintain flight, they utilize the combustion of jet fuel and air mixtures which produces the force necessary to drive systems and generate propulsion. While jet fuel is a fuel, it is not interchangeable with the types of fuels or gasoline that power vehicles such as automobiles. At the same time, other vehicles cannot use jet fuel as well due to its composition and characteristics. In this blog, we will discuss jet fuel and gasoline, allowing you to better understand their differences and why jet fuel in particular is so important for the functionality of aircraft.


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A piston engine, or reciprocating engine, is a type of internal combustion engine that utilizes reciprocating pistons in order to transform pressure into a rotational motion. When used for aviation purposes, the piston engine is charged with driving the propeller assembly through the creation of rotational motion, allowing the aircraft to achieve the propulsion necessary for flight. As a common engine type that serves many light and general aviation aircraft, it can be useful to understand their functionality and common types so that the best fit can be found.


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Light aircraft, perhaps surprisingly, can be maneuvered on the ground with relatively little difficulty. The key is to tow the aircraft without doing damage to the aircraft or yourself. For this reason, propeller manufacturers warn against pulling an aircraft around by its propeller. However, if an aircraft has struts, it's fine to move the aircraft around by those. That said, if you have to steer the aircraft in one direction or another, simply pulling or pushing it won’t work. This is where the tow bar comes into play. In this blog, we will cover tow bars and their uses.


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A modulator valve is a component inside an automatic transmission that controls shifting. While most modern transmissions don’t typically use them, they are very common in older transmissions. In this blog, we will discuss the way modulator valves work, how to tell if yours is faulty, and what to do if it fails.


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A gasket is a sealing material placed between connecting flanges to create a static seal within a pipe. This seal will ensure the pipe remains leak-proof in all operating conditions. Different types of gaskets are used to achieve varying leak-proof seals between pipe flanges. Regardless of type, the primary function of gaskets is to seal the irregularities of each face of a flange such that there will be no leakage of the service fluid from the flange joint. In piping, there are three types of gaskets used: non-metallic, metallic, and composite. In this blog, we will discuss all three in detail.


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            When conducting ground operations with an aircraft featuring a nose wheel steering system, control is often provided to the pilot through the flight deck. Depending on the size of the aircraft, various parts and components may be present to allow for efficient steering and braking. As aircraft landing and steering systems are crucial for conducting operations on runways and ground surfaces, understanding their types, construction, and functionalities can be extremely useful for any current or aspiring pilots.


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          From small piston powered planes to large military transports, aircraft are always designed with the fuel tanks placed within the wing structures. While one may assume that this design standard is for the sake of space and efficiency, there are actually major safety and structural reasons that have led to such a staple in aircraft construction. With fuel tanks placed within the wings, an aircraft can have more structural efficiency, provide more safety for flight, and reduce the complexity of its fuel system.


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In order to pressurize the cabin and meet the regulatory requirement of 0.55 pound of air pressure per person, approximately half of the air within an aircraft cabin is recirculated and mixed with fresh air supplied from the engines. In a typical commercial cabin air recirculation system, the air in the cabin consists of approximately half outside air from the engine compressor or auxiliary power unit and half filtered, recirculated air.


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          In general, a majority of aircraft operate in high altitude conditions, often ranging from 31,000 to 38,000 feet. At such heights, temperatures and the density of oxygen can be dangerously low, presenting a risk to anyone without sufficient protection. Despite this, most passengers and aircraft operators never worry about the comfort of breathing or the extreme cold during typical flights. This is because of cabin pressurization, allowing for passengers, pilots, and crew to safely travel in aircraft at high altitudes. In this blog, we will discuss what cabin pressurization is, how it is achieved, and how it benefits all of those on an aircraft during flight.


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